Stem Cell Debate One of

In utilitarianism, the focus is on outcomes, or the ends of an action; in deontology the actions themselves must be ethical and moral, or the outcome is moot. Deontology argues that there are norms and truths that are universal for all humans; actions then have a predisposition to right or wrong, moral or immoral. Kant believed that humans should act, at all times, as if their individual actions would have consequences for all of society. Morality, then, is based on rational thought and is the direction most humans innately want. Roughly, deontology is “the means justify the ends” (Kamm). Thus, one must ask first if the definition of human life begins at conception, and if those groupings of cells constitute legal and moral protections. Then, depending on the answer, one must decide; do the tremendous benefits already proven by science constitute a reason to continue research — the alleviation of pain and suffering for millions of clearly viable human individuals vs. The philosophical debate on cellular humanism? Works Cited Beauchaine, J. “The Next Frontier of the Stem Cell Debate.” 17 June 2009. The Village Voice. December 2010 . Espo, D. “Senate Approves Embryonic Stem Cell Bill.” 13 April 2007. The Washington Post. December 2010 . Haydn, P. The Philosophy of Human Rights. New York: Paragon Press, 2001. “International Consortium of Stem Cells, Ethics and Law.” March 2010. The Hinxton Group.

December 2010 . Kamm, F.M. Intricate Ethics: Rights, Responsibilities, and Permissible Harm. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007. Mohapatra, S. “Bush Administration Was Backward Looking.” 12 February 2009. HindustranTimes. December 2010 . “NIH Publishes Final Guidelines for Stem Cell research.” 23 August 2000. National Institutes of Health. December 2010 . “On Embryonic Stem Cell Research.” June 2008. United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. December 2010 . “Resolution on Human Embryonic and Stem Cell Research.” June 1999. Southern Baptist Convention. December 2010 . Robinson and Groves. Introducing Political Philosophy. New York: Icon Books, 2003. Roe v Wade. No. 410 U.S. 113. U.S. Supreme Court. 22 January 1973. “Stem Cells for Tissue Regeneration and Joint Repair.” 26 March 2006. Science Daily. November 2010 . “Stem-Cell Controversy.” 2005. Nation Master. November 2010 . “The Political Science of Stem Cells.” March 2008. The Coalition of Americans for Research Ethics. December 2010 . Troyer, J. The Classical Utilitarians – Bentham and Mill. New York: Hackett Publications, 2003. “U.S. Company Says Grows Embryo-Safe Stem Cells.” 22 June 2007. Reuters. November 2010 ..

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