Finally and one research says most significant, a transformational leader is willing to sacrifice on behalf of both the goals they are accomplishing and their teams (Arnold, Loughlin, 2010). Self-sacrifice is a major component to trust in a leader and matters more than any title, position of legitimate power or status (Johannessen, Olsen, 2010). This specific role in management is often performed across a very wide spectrum of quality and accuracy, and it is common in larger organizations to see two or more organizational structures emerge. The formal organization chart is often devised to communicate reporting relationships. Yet the more often used organizational structure is that mapped by the areas of control transformational leaders have over specific projects and departments. Leadership emerges from this more informal yet vastly more effective organizational structure because the relationships are predicated on trust (Arnold, Loughlin, 2010). The leading function of management encompasses all of these factors and has proven to be an excellent indicator of which managers will be able to make the transition into leadership.
This is an aspect of the four functions of management that often become so integrated into other phases during actual projects that it often is done continuously over the life of a strategy or program (Marker, 2010). Organizing ranges from the simple coordination of action items for a new marketing strategy to the development of a major product introduction or launch of a new business. The critical skill sets for managers during this phase include the ability to trim back any unnecessary tasks or programs, initiatives or strategies so that the organization can focus on what really matters. A good manager will organize with a mindset of efficiency and simplification. An excellent leader will not only does this, but transform the components of an organization into an entirely new value chain so that goals can be attained more efficiently (Arnold, Loughlin, 2010). The best managerial traits in this regard are the ability to streamline any process to make it more goal-centric and supported by buy-in from subordinates (Sheets, 2010).
This phase concentrates on keeping strategies on track, and the methods and techniques vary from online dashboards and analytics to basic reporting systems (Arnold, Loughlin, 2010). The traits of successful leaders in this phase of management concentrate on creating systems, reporting processes and analytics to understand why the direction of a strategy is happening the way it is. This is the phase of management that concentrates on tracking performance and then correcting it over time to ensure goals are met. It also involves coaching subordinates and guiding the team to the goal as well (Sheets, 2010). Like planning, this phase has its own reputation in management theory of being more analytical than communication-based. In fact the best leaders rely on intensive levels of communication to ensure they are staying on track to goals, and work diligently at collaboration to ensure all other departments are also kept informed.
The four functions of management are not nearly as distinct and secrete as they are often portrayed. In reality managers move through each of these phases very quickly, often relying on their managerial and leadership skills to make the most of any situation. Ultimately, it is the ability to manage all of these tasks together in a project, using the four functions of management and the traits and skills mentioned here that make the greatest contribution in the long-term.
Kara a. Arnold, and Catherine Loughlin. 2010. Individually considerate transformational leadership behaviour and self-sacrifice. Leadership & Organization Development Journal 31, no. 8, (November 20): 670-686.
Johannessen, J., and B. Olsen. 2010. The future of value creation and innovations: Aspects of a theory of value creation and innovation in a global knowledge economy. International Journal of Information Management 30, no. 6,
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Birgit Schyns, and Sabine Sczesny. 2010. Leadership attributes valence in self-concept and occupational self-efficacy. Career Development International 15,